Vitamins


 Compared to other components, the need for vitamin is low, however, a shortage of at least one of which may be dangerous for the body.

 Vitamins are essential compounds, because the body is unable to synthesize all, and if it is produced, it is in very small quantities. They are necessary to preserve the proper functioning of the body and staying healthy. They are not building material nor provide energy but act as regulators.

 Vitamins may be present in food products in very small quantities in active form (biologically active) or as pro-vitamins, which are only converted into vitamin body. The total lack of vitamins in the body leads to a band called deficiency lesions, while the excess to a condition called hypervitaminosis.

 

 There are two types of vitamins:

1 water-soluble, which include B vitamins and vitamin C

2 fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K.

 

 Vitamin A

Vitamin A plays multiple roles in the human body:

* Prevents drying keratosis and epithelial

* Is necessary in the process of vision

* Promotes regenerative cells

* Strengthens the immune system

* Prevents urinary tract infections, genital, skin, respiratory and digestive tract.

 

Its absence causes "night blindness" so abnormal adaptation of the eye to vision at dusk. Long lasting condition of vitamin A in the body as a consequence can lead to blindness.

 

Vitamin A calles also retinol is mainly known in the animal, while in plants it occurs provitamin. The largest amounts of retinol found in fish fat (blubber), full-fat milk, butter, liver, liver pate, egg yolks, margarine fortified with vitamin A and sour cream.

 

In the human body the vitamin A is produced from its provitamin - carotenoids which are present in products of plant origin. So in carotenoid-rich vegetables and fruits are of orange, green and yellow color, such as pumpkin, green peas, dill, mangoes, carrots, apricots and green beans.

 

 

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)

Vitamin B2 called riboflavin is necessary for the processing of proteins, carbohydrates and fats into energy. Its deficiency results in cracking of the corners of the mouth and skin, as well as skin problems around the eyes and tongue.

 

Foods rich in riboflavin are: milk and dairy products, eggs, cereal coarse. Riboflavin is also present in the liver and brewer's yeast, and in smaller quantities also in green vegetables and fruits. Moreover, the bacterial flora of vitamin B2 is synthesized in small quantities.

 

 

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)

Vitamin B6 is essential for the synthesis of adrenaline and serotonin, which have an impact on the proper functioning of the nervous system. It plays an important role in the storage of energy in the body and the metabolism of proteins. Furthermore, it is required for the production of red blood cells and its deficiency results in a restriction include protein synthesis of hemoglobin, of antibodies, and certain hormones. Which in turn is manifested hair loss, anemia, numbness of feet and hands, insomnia, excessive sweating, changes in skin and mucous membranes.

 

 The best sources of vitamin B6 are fish especially salmon and tuna, moreover, nuts, bananas and some vegetables such as potatoes or avocado. In the largest concentrations in the dry yeast, wheat germ and liver. It is also synthesized by the bacterial flora of the gastrointestinal tract.

 

 

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)

Essential for all the cells in the body and for the production of red and white blood cells. With folic acid takes part in the synthesis of amino acids, the white marrow, as well as DNA.

 

It is very reactive compound and its lack in the diet may lead to disturbances in the process of eating, and anemia.

 

Cobalamin mainly contain products of animal origin such as the kidney and the liver. The smaller quantities of vitamin B12 is present in milk and dairy products and egg yolks.

 

 

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

Vitamin C works in many ways. Starting from the production of antibodies that protect against the common cold or sore throat, the bactericidal properties after detoxification (eg lead) and neutralizing (tetanus).

 

 Ascorbic acid deficiency can cause:

* Immunodeficiency,

* Decrease in physical activity

* Joint and muscle pain

* Long-term deficiency or absence causes a condition called scurvy.

 

 It is very common vitamin in nature and most sources are fruits and vegetables. In animal products find myself in very small quantities. Of these, most of the liver comprises ascorbic acid.

 

 

Vitamin D (calciferol)

Few vitamin widespread in nature, wherein the deficiency leads to an inability to use the calcium and phosphorus, and, as a consequence causes a change in the skeletal system in children resulting in a disease called rickets. In older individuals, this leads to osteoporosis.

There are many natural sources of vitamin D, while good sources are eggs, butter, fish, liver, whole milk and fatty fish such as salmon.

 

 

Vitamin E (tocopherol)

Animal organisms is essential to maintain normal reproductive function, and its effect on humans has not been fully explained. Is known to be an antioxidant and to protect nerve cells from damage.

 

Vitamin E is present in most green vegetables (lettuce, spinach) and fruit (apples), but the most abundant sources are vegetable oils, cereal grains and germs. In smaller amounts of tocopherol includes butter, cheese, milk and eggs.

 

As the next step about nutrients we will provide you knowledge about MINERALS.

 

Nasza Klasa Wykop

 

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